Are The Public Institutions Of Somalia Become A Total Captive Of Dysfunctional Human Behavior?

Dr. Mohamed Ali-Nur Hagi - It is not simple to reconstruct easily public institutions in post-conflict situations, where human behavior enclaves the public welfares, holding in captivity outside the boundaries of what their constitution sanctions.
Editorial Keydmedia Online
Are The Public Institutions Of Somalia Become A Total Captive Of Dysfunctional Human Behavior?

Since the collapse of the State in early 1990s, Somalia has been through the longest civil war and without an effective government in the history of the contemporary civilized world.  The question that everybody is asking is, what is wrong?

To answer the enigma of this question, that has puzzled the minds of every politician, economist and normal individuals, needs a comprehensive understanding of the essence of the conflict in Somalia and the policies of post- conflict public administration reconstruction.  

My intention is to focus the policies of post-conflict public administration reconstruction of Somalia and the challenges; where the essence of the conflict in the country is fully discussed in my other paper – Alternative Development in Somalia written in 2002. (An analysis of the Somali State, Civil Society and Development).

To begin with, it is believed there are two conflicting theories and models of what political institution and government forms suits to any nation.  Some believe, government to be a practical art, in which we first decide what purpose we wish to promote and then inquire what form of government is best fitted to fulfill those purposes. Others believe, that forms of governments are not a matter of choice, but must be taken as we find.

It appears both concepts and models of governments are feasible as political institutions are made by men and can be shaped deliberately by men amid the best institutions may fail if the citizens are unwilling or unable to play their part.  

However, the main challenges of both models of governments in rebuilding public administration and regaining the public trust in Post-Conflict, according to United Nations Economic and Social Development Affairs, include:

  • Developing effective public sector leadership.
  • Building effective public administration institutions.
  • Strengthening human resources in the public sector.
  • Establishing mechanisms for inclusive governance; and
  • Improving the delivery of public services.


Concurring those aspects of rebuilding the nation in post-conflict, the right cycle of state legitimacy, effectiveness and public service delivery will be tested on government’s understanding and fulfilling the five indispensible pillars, mentioned above, that every nation must correct. Therefore, Let me examine and digest each one of them in the context of the current and the previous governments of Somalia.

Developing Effective Public Sector Leadership

One of the most critical elements of the failure of Somali governments and its institutions are the lack of presence of capable leaders at all levels of government. Somalia lacks Leaders who are committed to reconstructing the state and improve the delivery of public services transforming the public institutions as well heal the wounds of the conflict into peaceful coexistence and collaboration.

Yet indeed, as all efforts and energy are exerted on peace negotiations, security operations and humanitarian, too little attention is paid to cultivating of effective leaders and promoting respect for institutions. Instead of developing effective public sector leadership, the whole energy of Somali government, both the current and the TFGs, is dominated by primitive clan-parties sharing power in government offices and monopolizing the public institutions.

This approach demonstrated the weaknesses and failures of all post-conflict governments of Somalia, which needed to focus more sharply on capable leaders and strategies for promoting and developing effective leadership without the bias of clan lineage.

Somalia needs a Leadership with a vision of the future, which is fundamental in implementing institutional reforms. Competent leaders able to mobilize the public to move the reforms, needed in the country, in the right direction and achieve shared goals.

Building Effective Public Institutions

Public Institutions in Somalia was destroyed and desolated for more than two decades. In post-conflict situations, comprehensive institutional development was unequivocally necessary. Somali political institutions require complete political system changes with reform that guarantee effective public policies and create checks and balances to prevent abuses of power. Civil society institutions, too, might require similar reforms.

The most challenge facing our public institutions is how to restructure the public service into an inclusive, transparent and comprehensive ways so that it incorporates and reinvigorate desirable public service values, such as impartiality, integrity, and dedication. 

An additional challenge is, making sure that the public servants themselves are invested in the change process so that they can become the most effective contributors  and champions of the country’s recovery. The composition and functioning of the public service represents a microcosm of the society and mirrors the larger governance environment.

To create effective public administration, our current institutions need to remodel by themselves to fit the country’s specific needs taking into account of the cultural, historical and political realities prevailed in the years of the civil war and the aftermath of the conflict.

Strengthening Human Resources in the Public Sector

It is very practical and a historical fact that every nation

Editorial 29 April 2022 13:51

Somalia is on the move. It is pushing for foreign investment, and large infrastructure projects are changing the face of its scarred capital city, Mogadishu. These developments could promise better fortunes for Somalis as the country emerges from the Covid-19 pandemic